Elba is an island in Tuscany. It lies 10 km (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino on the Italian mainland, and isthe largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park, and is the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia. Elba is famous as the site of Napoleon's first exile, in 1814–15.
The island is part of the province of Livorno and is divided into seven municipalities, with a total population of about 32,000 inhabitants (2019) which increases considerably during the summer. The municipalities are Portoferraio (which is also the island's principal town), Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, and Rio. Thanks to its rich cultural heritage, cuisine and nature, the island has become an important international tourist destination.
The island was first inhabited by Ligures Ilvates. The island was then settled by the Etruscans, who started mining iron at Elba, and later (after 480 BC) by the Romans, who christened the island with the name of Ilva.