The Bungle Bungle Range is one of the most extensive and impressive occurrences of sandstone tower (or cone) karst terrain in the world. The Bungle Bungles were a plateau of Devonian sandstone, carved into a mass of beehive-shaped towers with regularly alternating, dark grey bands of cyanobacterial crust (single cell photosynthetic organisms).
The plateau is dissected by 100–200-metre (330–660 ft) deep, sheer-sided gorges and slot canyons. The cone-towers are steep-sided, with an abrupt break of slope at the base and have domed summits. How they were formed is not yet completely understood. Their surface is fragile but stabilised by crusts of iron oxide and bacteria. They provide an outstanding example of land formation by dissolutional weathering of sandstone, with removal of sand grains by wind, rain and sheet wash on slopes.
Purnululu is the name given to the sandstone area of the Bungle Bungle Range by the Kija Aboriginal people, and the national park is also known as the Bungles National Park. The range is situated within the park, rises up to 578 m (1896 feet) above sea level and is famous for the unusual and striking sandstone domes striped with alternating orange and grey bands.