Bamberg is in Upper Franconia. The town has slightly over 70,000 residents. For its historical architecture and preserved heritage, the whole town of Bamberg is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. It is a great place to see South German baroque architecture.
Bamberg can trace its history to a first mention in the year 902. Its main claim to fame is being the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamberg, which was established in 1007 and consequently the Bamberger Dom cathedral. It was a staunchly Catholic town through the Reformation under the rule of cuius regio eius religio (roughly, "the ruler decides the faith") and remains more Catholic than the rest of Franconia to this day.
Bamberg is said to have been built on seven hills and thus it sometimes calls itself "Franconian Rome", though whether the hills were conveniently counted to get to seven is anybody's guess. While the city had lost much of its relevance and influence by the 20th century, that was a blessing in disguise as it meant being spared the bombardments of World War II and surviving the war with much of the architectural heritage intact.