The State of Israel is a small yet diverse Middle Eastern country. The modern State of Israel was established in 1948 as a homeland for the Jewish people, but the region contains thousands of years of history for many peoples and religions in addition to Jewish people. Israel is considered part of the Holy Land (together with areas of Jordan, Egypt and the Palestinian Territories). The three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, as well as the Baha'i faith, were founded or have strong ties to this land, and their holy and historic sites are major destinations for pilgrims and tourists from around the world.
In contrast to its long ancient history, Israel is a highly urbanized, economically developed, first-world society. With many cities set upon the shores of the Mediterranean it is famous for its beach culture and nightlife.
Unfortunately Israel is still in conflict with Palestine and sometimes you will see signs of these tensions, but you will almost never be in danger (though there are places you should be more cautious like the West Bank).