Kuwait is a monarchy at the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq and Saudi Arabia. As many of its neighbours, Kuwait has achieved wealth from its oil reserves. While it was the scene of the Gulf War in 1990, Kuwait is today an island of stability and emancipation in the Middle East.
The Kuwaitis trace their roots to the Al-Anisa and Al-Utub tribes from Nejd province, which is now in Saudi Arabia. They moved to Qatar and then to Al-Qurain, now in Kuwait, by around 1710. By 1752, the long term residents of Al-Qurain decided that they needed a central authority to tamp down tribal warfare in the area. The Al-Sabah tribe was chosen to rule, and the first sheikh, Sabah ibn Jaber, reigned as Sabah I from 1752 to 1756. The Sabahs mediated religious and tribal disputes with diplomacy. They also played the Ottomans, Egyptians and European powers against each other while maintaining their autonomy. In 1899, Mubarak I signed an agreement making Kuwait a British Protectorate, with the sheikhs maintaining local control while putting their foreign policy in the hands of the British, in exchange for military protection from other powers. The British had already had a presence in Kuwait for some time: in the 1770s, Abdullah I already had a contract with the British to deliver mail for them up to Aleppo, Syria.
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